--:-- • --:--Пример экскурсии
In the centre of Lavrushinsky pereulok we find the world-famous Tretyakov Gallery. It's on the even-numbered side behind decorative cast-iron railings, located in a red-brick mansion building with a floral frieze. The Tretyakov is the world's most extensive repository of painting by Russian masters. In front of the gallery stands a monument to the Gallery's founder – Pavel Tretyakov.
The Tretyakov Gallery is located in a former merchant's mansion that previously belonged to the Lavrushins in the C18th– after whom Lavrushinsky pereulok is named :) But in 1851 the estate was purchased by the most prominent industrialists & philanthropists of their day – the Tretyakov Brothers. Both were cultivated men of taste – Pavel Tretyakov first began collecting Dutch Old Masters when he was 24. He picked them up at fleamarkets which then flourished near Sukharevskaya. But they prompted his interest in paintings by Russian artists too. He and his brother were among the first to recognise the talent of young Russian painters – they met the artists and got to know them... often helping them out of financial woes.
As time went on the collection increased to a stage where Pavel Tretyakov had no further space in his house for more new paintings. He began remodelling the family house to fit in more space for paintings. The architect who undertook the project was Alexander Kaminsky, the husband of Pavel Tretyakov's younger sister. As soon as the refurbishments were complete, Tretyakov threw his home open to all-comers – admission to the gallery rooms of his house was to be free of charge. The new collection was soon the talk of the town, and people came to see it for all kinds of reasons – not only to admire the pictures, but to meet business acquaintances, for a romantic rendezvous – and matchmakers used the galleries as an unofficial place to show-off their prospective brides. Tretyakov knew exactly what was going on – but gave orders that no-one, on any account, was to be denied admission.
Tretyakov similarly encouraged art students who came with their easels to copy the works on show – so many, in fact that it became difficult to get near the paintings at all. But Pavel Tretyakov believed it was essential for young artists to learn their craft. However, not all of them were merely learning. Cases arose in the Russian provinces of 'original' famous paintings being put up for sale – copies of those in Tretyakov's gallery. Tretyakov was furious to hear of the trickery, and closed the gallery to all-comers. However, he relented three years later, and the galleries reopened anew.
Pavel Tretyakov reopened his gallery in 1881. Then on 31st August 1892 he donated his entire collection – along with the smaller, but valuable collection of his brother Sergey – to the City of Moscow in perpetuity. The opening of the new collection was of such importance that a special train was ordered to bring the Royal Family from St Petersburg for the event. The Emperor had planned to ennoble Tretyakov, but Tretyakov politely declined - “I was born a merchant – and as a merchant shall I die”. However, he was cajoled to accept the rank of Freeman of the City of Moscow by the grateful City Council.
Tretyakov's death did not prevent his collection from continuing to expand – and further rebuilding work became necessary to house it all. In 1903 the facade of the building was redesigned in a pseudo-ancient-Russian style by Viktor Vasnetsov. The coat-of-arms of the City of Moscow appears in bas-relief – surrounded on both sides by a ceramic frieze with vases, stylised as if in Old Slavonic script. To the right-hand side of the building we see another, modern building – built in the C20th to house a new era of acquisitions for the collection.
The original, historic building of the Tretyakov Gallery houses Russian art from the C11th to C20th. It's one of the world's most comprehensive collections of paintings, drawings and sculpture – running to more than 50,000 catalalogued items. It would be fruitless to even begin to list the artists represented in the collection, since even the list of names would last many hours.
In 1980 it was decided to place a statue of the Gallery's founder, Pavel Tretyakov, outside the main entrance. Sculptor Alexander Kibalnikov created his four-metre work on the basis of Repin's famous portrait of Tretyakov. Actually Repin's portrait has Tretyakov sitting his armchair with his arms folded – but Kibalnikov has kindly asked Mr Tretyakov to stand for us – while retaining the mood of Repin's portrait.
A grim granite statue of Stalin once stood where we now see Tretyakov's statue. The statue was carted off after the 20th Session of the Communist Party – in which the recently deceased Stalin was disgraced. The spot then stood entirely empty for 24 years. What happened to the Granite Stalin? In fact, we know with some certainty what happened. It was dragged off to the Park of Arts – a small park on Krymsky Val, where the House of Arts – a new wing of the Tretyakov – is located. Stalin sits there still, in all his pomp – although someone has lopped his nose off.
The territories of historical district Zamoskvorechye lie on the right (southern) bank of the Moskva River. They joined Moscow in the 14th century when Russian lands used to suffer from the Golden Horde raids. The settlers mainly were soldiers, handicraftsmen and merchants. Their life was organized in a patchwork sloboda system. In 1591-1592 during the reign of Feodor I the fortified wall on the site of the present-day Garden Ring was built. Even now, one can easily understand from the street names what occupation the residents had centuries ago. For example, royal garden attendants (садовники, sadovniki) settled in the beginning of present-day Sadovnicheskaya Street from 1495 until the fire of 1701; tanners specializing in sheepskin (oвчинники, ovchinniki) gave their name to Ovchinnikovsky Lanes; royal mint workers (монетчики, monetchiki) – to Monetchikovsky Lanes, Court translators (толмачи, tolmachi) to Tolmachevsky Lanes. Bolshaya Ordynka Street was named after Orda, was the road to the Golden Horde, and was initially home to the Tatar community.
During our tour we are going to tell you about famous historic buildings in Pyatnitskaya Street, the main walking street of the district. We will walk around the State Tretyakov Gallery and listen to the story about the Tretyakovs, famous Russian businessmen, collectors and patrons of art, and the history of their collection and Gallery building.
There is also the house and museum of another famous Russian businessman and patron of art - Bakhrushin museum of theater, built in 1896.
Famous Russian writer Alexander Ostrovsky also lived in Zamoskvorechye, in Malaya Ordynka street. If you like his works you can visit his house-museum.
Zamoskvorechye is famous for its churches: Church of St. Sophia Of God's Wisdom on Gardener's Island and its belfry, Church of St. George the Victorious in Endova, The Church of the Ikon “the Joy of All Who Suffer”, The Church of St Nicholas at Pyzhakh, etc. Each of them has its own history and mystery.
With Your Audio Guide you will go through all the streets and lanes, get familiar with some interesting yards, explore the legends and myths and find out the truth. You will relax on the benches of Bolotnaya square; take pictures of the Kremlin domes, Giant Peter the Great statue, river embankments, learn about the former Mamontov Hotel and super deluxe Balchug-Kempinsky.