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This corner building clad with industrial mesh is at the moment quite a poor sight. A plate attached to the mesh tells us that this is building number 6. Yet the maps have it as 4/2. Its exterior provokes pity, and not too many people know that this is where the very first Einem chocolate and candy factory used to be. And – yes, it is the “Krasny Oktiabr” (or “Red October”) of today.
Theodor von Einem started manufacturing chocolate products and sweets in 1851, and he was then based on Arbat Street. Those were handmade candy. During the Crimean war this German-turned-Russian chocolatier supplied his products to the army. That made him minted. He expanded and relocated the production facilities to Miasnitskaya Street. In 1869 von Einem found a partner, whose name was Julius Heuss. The two opened a store on Teatralnaya Square and put up the factory premises here, on Sophia Embankment.
Von Einem’s manufacturing expanded substantially in the next 10 years, which led to the emergence of a few more huge production premises several blocks away, on Bersenevskaya Embankment. After the October revolution of 1917 the factory got nationalized, and in 1922 it was given a new name – the “Krasny Oktiabr” (or “Red October”). This brand is very well-known outside Russia, as well as at home; it is a multiple winner of various Grand Prix at international exhibitions. Admit it – you’d never think that this story of multinational success had begun in this very spot, originating from six two- and three-storey buildings and the home of a chief executive. The site right next to it is the number 6, where the factory facilities stood, as well as the chambers in which Picart resided.
The territories of historical district Zamoskvorechye lie on the right (southern) bank of the Moskva River. They joined Moscow in the 14th century when Russian lands used to suffer from the Golden Horde raids. The settlers mainly were soldiers, handicraftsmen and merchants. Their life was organized in a patchwork sloboda system. In 1591-1592 during the reign of Feodor I the fortified wall on the site of the present-day Garden Ring was built. Even now, one can easily understand from the street names what occupation the residents had centuries ago. For example, royal garden attendants (садовники, sadovniki) settled in the beginning of present-day Sadovnicheskaya Street from 1495 until the fire of 1701; tanners specializing in sheepskin (oвчинники, ovchinniki) gave their name to Ovchinnikovsky Lanes; royal mint workers (монетчики, monetchiki) – to Monetchikovsky Lanes, Court translators (толмачи, tolmachi) to Tolmachevsky Lanes. Bolshaya Ordynka Street was named after Orda, was the road to the Golden Horde, and was initially home to the Tatar community.
During our tour we are going to tell you about famous historic buildings in Pyatnitskaya Street, the main walking street of the district. We will walk around the State Tretyakov Gallery and listen to the story about the Tretyakovs, famous Russian businessmen, collectors and patrons of art, and the history of their collection and Gallery building.
There is also the house and museum of another famous Russian businessman and patron of art - Bakhrushin museum of theater, built in 1896.
Famous Russian writer Alexander Ostrovsky also lived in Zamoskvorechye, in Malaya Ordynka street. If you like his works you can visit his house-museum.
Zamoskvorechye is famous for its churches: Church of St. Sophia Of God's Wisdom on Gardener's Island and its belfry, Church of St. George the Victorious in Endova, The Church of the Ikon “the Joy of All Who Suffer”, The Church of St Nicholas at Pyzhakh, etc. Each of them has its own history and mystery.
With Your Audio Guide you will go through all the streets and lanes, get familiar with some interesting yards, explore the legends and myths and find out the truth. You will relax on the benches of Bolotnaya square; take pictures of the Kremlin domes, Giant Peter the Great statue, river embankments, learn about the former Mamontov Hotel and super deluxe Balchug-Kempinsky.