--:-- • --:--Пример экскурсии
Here Pyatnitsky lane separates from Bolshoi Ovchinnikovsky lane. You can see two buildings at the corners. The first one is a light-blue 4-storey house No. 17, with its first 2 floors built in the 18th century. Across the street, on the opposite corner of Pyatnitsky and Ovchinnikovsky lanes you can see the fish shopping center “Pyatnitsky”.
Up until the mid-90s of the 20th century there used to be a picturesque food market on the corner of Pyatnitsky and Bolshoi Ovchinnikovsky lanes. However there was a fire once and it burnt down. So it was decided to build a specialized fish market instead. Today it’s called fish shopping center “Pyatnitsky”. On one side it faces Pyatnitsky lane and on the other, more remarkable, side – Bolshoi Ovchinnikovsky lane. There is a noteworthy statue on the porch of the market: what looks like a half-eaten fish is stuck in the fishing net that reminds more of a spider net. Next to the statue you can see an entrance to the restaurant with quite a peculiar name Oprichnik.
Oprichnik was a member of oprichnina, a special army created by tsar Ivan the Terrible as a part of his political reform of 1565. The term “oprichnik” appeared later. In the times of Ivan the Terrible oprichniks were called „tsar’s people“. Different social classes were represented in oprichnina, including princes, boyars and noblemen. All of them were supposed to renounce their families and take an oath of loyalty to the tsar, as well as swear to live separately from the “worldly” people. They dressed themselves in black clothes, very similar to of the monks.
Several gloomy symbols of those times served as distinctive signs of the oprichniks: a broom to sweep the treachery out and a dog’s head to sniff and gnaw the treachery out. According to Dal’s dictionary, the ancient Russian word “oprich” means “beyond, outside the limits of something”. That’s the origin of the adjective “oprichny” – “outside, special”.
The territories of historical district Zamoskvorechye lie on the right (southern) bank of the Moskva River. They joined Moscow in the 14th century when Russian lands used to suffer from the Golden Horde raids. The settlers mainly were soldiers, handicraftsmen and merchants. Their life was organized in a patchwork sloboda system. In 1591-1592 during the reign of Feodor I the fortified wall on the site of the present-day Garden Ring was built. Even now, one can easily understand from the street names what occupation the residents had centuries ago. For example, royal garden attendants (садовники, sadovniki) settled in the beginning of present-day Sadovnicheskaya Street from 1495 until the fire of 1701; tanners specializing in sheepskin (oвчинники, ovchinniki) gave their name to Ovchinnikovsky Lanes; royal mint workers (монетчики, monetchiki) – to Monetchikovsky Lanes, Court translators (толмачи, tolmachi) to Tolmachevsky Lanes. Bolshaya Ordynka Street was named after Orda, was the road to the Golden Horde, and was initially home to the Tatar community.
During our tour we are going to tell you about famous historic buildings in Pyatnitskaya Street, the main walking street of the district. We will walk around the State Tretyakov Gallery and listen to the story about the Tretyakovs, famous Russian businessmen, collectors and patrons of art, and the history of their collection and Gallery building.
There is also the house and museum of another famous Russian businessman and patron of art - Bakhrushin museum of theater, built in 1896.
Famous Russian writer Alexander Ostrovsky also lived in Zamoskvorechye, in Malaya Ordynka street. If you like his works you can visit his house-museum.
Zamoskvorechye is famous for its churches: Church of St. Sophia Of God's Wisdom on Gardener's Island and its belfry, Church of St. George the Victorious in Endova, The Church of the Ikon “the Joy of All Who Suffer”, The Church of St Nicholas at Pyzhakh, etc. Each of them has its own history and mystery.
With Your Audio Guide you will go through all the streets and lanes, get familiar with some interesting yards, explore the legends and myths and find out the truth. You will relax on the benches of Bolotnaya square; take pictures of the Kremlin domes, Giant Peter the Great statue, river embankments, learn about the former Mamontov Hotel and super deluxe Balchug-Kempinsky.