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The Bakhrushin family is a well-known entrepreneurial dynasty. Their history goes way back to their C17th cattle-trading business in the Ryazan region. In 1821 Alexey Bakhrushin and his family arrived in Moscow on foot. Quite literally. By 1834 this smart trader had already been running a leather production plant and was included in Moscow’s merchant registers. He was a true innovator: he made his son learn French, he was the first in the whole of Moscow to install a brick chimney for his plant, and he shed his beard, which was to say the least frowned upon. Many Muscovites surveyed the chimney, shaking their heads with concern: “Oh, he’d flop straight through that chimney one day”, they’d say. In a way, this turned out to be true: when Alexey passed away, his inheritance wasn’t wildly contested by the willing – there were way too many liabilities left behind.
Merchant Bakhrushin’s widow and his three sons – Peter, Alexander and Vasily – continued with his business, and they added a textiles factory to the plant in 1864. The family grew real rich during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 as one of the leading army suppliers. It was their father who set in a tradition a long time ago: whenever the financial year closed with a tidy profit, the money was to be donated to the poor, the sick, the elderly, and students. “You had known poverty and shared it with me, so learn to respect it when others are in need”, - that is what he taught his children. He told them to never refuse help and to never wait until they get asked for some, but always be the first to offer assistance. All the three Bakhrushin brothers followed these guidelines throughout their lives.
The Bakhrushin family was one of the most respected in the merchant circles of Moscow. They were often called “professional benefactors”. They invested capital into charity establishments. When founding or co-founding one, they gave the Bakhrushin name to the establishment. Each was attributed a general fund; the fund’s dividends were used to cover the appropriate expenses. Bakhrushins were always on the Board of their projects and took active part in their development.
When the older family members were still alive, the following institutions were built and maintained at their expense: a city hospital, the Free Accommodation House, the Shelter and Colony for the homeless, the Boys’ Crafts academy, and the Elderly Actors Home. There was also a Bakhrushin hospice in Zaraisk.
The territories of historical district Zamoskvorechye lie on the right (southern) bank of the Moskva River. They joined Moscow in the 14th century when Russian lands used to suffer from the Golden Horde raids. The settlers mainly were soldiers, handicraftsmen and merchants. Their life was organized in a patchwork sloboda system. In 1591-1592 during the reign of Feodor I the fortified wall on the site of the present-day Garden Ring was built. Even now, one can easily understand from the street names what occupation the residents had centuries ago. For example, royal garden attendants (садовники, sadovniki) settled in the beginning of present-day Sadovnicheskaya Street from 1495 until the fire of 1701; tanners specializing in sheepskin (oвчинники, ovchinniki) gave their name to Ovchinnikovsky Lanes; royal mint workers (монетчики, monetchiki) – to Monetchikovsky Lanes, Court translators (толмачи, tolmachi) to Tolmachevsky Lanes. Bolshaya Ordynka Street was named after Orda, was the road to the Golden Horde, and was initially home to the Tatar community.
During our tour we are going to tell you about famous historic buildings in Pyatnitskaya Street, the main walking street of the district. We will walk around the State Tretyakov Gallery and listen to the story about the Tretyakovs, famous Russian businessmen, collectors and patrons of art, and the history of their collection and Gallery building.
There is also the house and museum of another famous Russian businessman and patron of art - Bakhrushin museum of theater, built in 1896.
Famous Russian writer Alexander Ostrovsky also lived in Zamoskvorechye, in Malaya Ordynka street. If you like his works you can visit his house-museum.
Zamoskvorechye is famous for its churches: Church of St. Sophia Of God's Wisdom on Gardener's Island and its belfry, Church of St. George the Victorious in Endova, The Church of the Ikon “the Joy of All Who Suffer”, The Church of St Nicholas at Pyzhakh, etc. Each of them has its own history and mystery.
With Your Audio Guide you will go through all the streets and lanes, get familiar with some interesting yards, explore the legends and myths and find out the truth. You will relax on the benches of Bolotnaya square; take pictures of the Kremlin domes, Giant Peter the Great statue, river embankments, learn about the former Mamontov Hotel and super deluxe Balchug-Kempinsky.