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The enormous red-brick building which lines the length of Bersenevskaya Embankment here was originally built as the “Einem” Chocolate Factory, then renamed the “Red October” Chocolate Factory. It's attractive after nightfall, when it's beautifully illuminated.
The Einem Confectionery Company – later renamed “Red October” in the soviet era – first took premises on Bersenevskaya Embankment in 1878. The owners were two German entrepreneurs named Einem and Heiss, and their products quickly took the Russian market by storm, and was widely exported. Building the new factory took nearly thirty years, and Ferdinand Einem had already passed away by the time it opened full – Heiss oversaw the operation on his own. It was unusual that although Einem actually died in Berlin, his coffin was brought to Moscow for burial in the Vvedensky Cemetery.
It took 30 years to build this enormous factory, whose premises included not only the manufacturing rooms but also the offices and accommodation for the staff. There are more than 20 separate red-brick buildings – it's an outstanding example of Russian architecture from the Industrialization era. In 2007 production moved to newly-built premises on the outskirts of the city, and the old factory was listed for conversion into a new urban landscape of housing, shops, museums and leisure facilities. There are several art galleries, and the Institute of Media, Architecture & Design. A part of the historic building is now a Museum of Chocolate Production and has a shop selling hand-made chocolates.
The former Red October Factory is Moscow's youngest culture park, and almost every month new places spring up here – galleries, editorial offices of magazines, design offices and architectural studios.
The range of goods the Einem Chocolate Factory produced was huge – chocolate, cocoa, chocolates, caramels, marshmallows, biscuits, gingerbreads, and wafers. They opened a branch in Crimea, which added chocolate-glazed fruits to the range. There were special gift-wrapped selections in silk, velvet or leather boxes. Often these gift boxes included postcards, particularly featuring views of Moscow. One of the best-selling gateaux was called “Love Me”. The price of these gateaux varied according to the size which you bought. Buyers used to enjoy embarrassing the pretty sales assistants with orders like “Love Me, please, for 3 roubles”.
In 1896 Einem's products were awarded the Gold Medal at the All-Russian Arts & Industry Fair in Nizhny Novgorod. Thus the factory received the right to use the Russian coat-of-arms on its packaging and labels. Then in 1900 Einem won the Grand Prix at the Paris World Fair for the range and quality of it chocolate. In 1913 the Einem Factory was appointed Purveyor Of Confectionery to the Russian Royal Family.
During its long existence the Einem factory organised many charitable events. For every pound's-weight of chocolate sold, the factory put aside a silver sixpence. This amount was then divided equally between charities helping the Moscow poor, and German-language schools for the poor and orphans. The factory opened a school for child apprentices, offered health insurance to those in need, and awarded excellent pensions to those who had served over 25 years with the firm. During WW1 the company made many charitable donations, organised a hospital for wounded soldiers, and sent railway-wagons of biscuits and chocolate to the Front. All this was more remarkable because despite being owned by German partners, Russia was fighting Germany in WW1.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Einem Chocolate Factory was nationalised and renamed 'State Chocolate Factory No.1, formerly Einem' – and then in 1922 renamed again at the Red October Chocolate Factory. However, quality control remained strictly monitored. “Giant Bear”, “Little Annie”, and “Kitty-Kitty” were the favourite treats of the soviet era. However, the most popular, “Come & Get Me!” was a pre-revolutionary brand that remained in production after – the wrapper was changed from a girl with her dog to a rather evil-eyed toddler carrying a bat for playing lapta. (Lapta is a Russian game similar to baseball or cricket).
It took German businessman Ferdinand von Einem quite a while to open his chocolate factory on Bersenevskaya Embankment. He'd arrived in Moscow in 1850 with the idea of opening a business. Within a year he'd opened a small workshop on Arbat Street, making handmade chocolates. His earnings were meagre, but history lent a helping hand – he received a Government Contract to supply jam to the troops at the Front in the Crimean War. The resourceful businessman ploughed the profits back into the business, enabling him to expand his production and set up a small factory on Myasnitskaya street.
In 1857 Einem met up with his old friend from Germany, Julius Heiss, who was a very clever businessman. They set up in business together and opened a new shop on fashionable Theatre Square. By saving every penny the two partners managed to set up a new factory on Sofiiskaya Embankment, and equipped it with the latest steam-operated machinery imported from Germany. Thus the new company was called “Einem's Patented Steam Factory for Chocolates, Candies and Fancy Confectionery”. The firm won awards at trade fairs and industrial exhibitions. It wasn't until the 1870s that they decided to build the enormous new factory here on Bersenevskaya Embankment.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour is a cathedral on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few blocks southwest of the Kremlin. With an overall height of 103 metres it is the tallest Orthodox Christian church in the world.
The current church is the second to stand on this site. The original church, built during the 19th century, took more than 40 years to build. It was destroyed in 1931 during the Communist rule of Joseph Stalin. The demolition was supposed to make way for a colossal Palace of the Soviets that was never built, so the church was reconstructed in the 1990s on the same site.
The Cathedral is located on Volkhonka Street, which starts from Borovitskaya Square. The name of the street appeared at the end of the XVIII century when on the lands of the Volkonskis, a famous noble family was a popular tavern "Volkhonka". The street is one of the most ancient in Moscow. It was famous as a district for the rich.
This district is going to become Moscow Museum District. During the tour you will see and have the opportunity to visit a number of art museums: The Tsvetkovsky Gallery, The Ilya Glazunov Art Gallery, The Lopukhin Family Mansion (aka the Roerich Museum), Gallery of European and American Art of the C19th and C20th, The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, The Museum of Private Collections. While walking here you will understand why Moscow used to be accepted as a beautiful jewelry box. In the lanes you will discover old mansions and fall in love with stories of Russian noble families. Such are The Golitsyn Mansion, The Lopukhin Family Mansion, Obolonsky's Mansion, Sergey Tretyakov's Mansion etc. The Chambers of Averky Kirillov - a unique example of a large urban homestead. Chambers, Church of St. Nicholas and outbuildings along the waterfront are a single architectural complex.
Another bright example of Moscow architecture is Pertsova's Rental Apartment Mansions. The house was an apartment house, located on the corner of Soymonovsky passage and Prechistenskaya embankment, built in 1905-1907 by architects N. Zhukov and B.N. Shnaubert on sketches of the artist S.V. Malyutin, author of Russian nesting dolls. The house includes apartments and artists' studios in the upper attic of the building.