--:-- • --:--Пример экскурсии
The vast beige building of the State Polytechnical Museum occupies the whole of one side of Novaya Square. The main body of the building is laid-out in the Russian style, and adorned with a rich layer of stucco-work decoration.
The State Polytechnical Museum was founded in 1872 on the initiative of the Imperial Society for Natural History, Anthropology & Ethnography. Today's exhibition spaces total nearly 10,000 square metres, presenting all kinds of displays from industry to space exploration in 65 different galleries. There are just under 200,000 exhibits on display. The museum's collections illustrate the history of technology and technologists, and explain how different devices work. The Museum has a Scientific Library numbering some three million tomes and publications. The museum receives something upwards of 450,000 visitors each year.
The story of the Polytechnical Museum begins with the First Exhibition Of Russian Achievement, which displayed the industrial, agricultural, military, scientific, technical and cultural achievements of Russia – in an exhibition celebrating the 200th Anniversary of Tsar Peter the Great. The whole thing was financed by private benefactors, and was displayed in the Manege building along with 86 further temporary buildings put up in the Alexander Gardens, along the Kremlin Embankment, and Varvarskaya Square. The First Exhibition displayed 12,000 Russian exhibits, and 2000 from abroad. To keep it all operating the exhibition had its own gas plant for lighting, a printing-house, and specially-laid tram lines from Brest Station (now Belarussky). Nearly 750,000 visitors flocked to see it all.
After the huge success of the First Exhibition of Russian Achievement of 1872, the Imperial Society for Natural History, Anthropology & Ethnography set about the task of founding a Museum for the exhibits – the building of which would need to be designed and constructed specially. The exhibits which had been the centre of the First Exhibition Of Russian Achievement in 1872 would become the core collection of the new Polytechnical and Historical Museum.
Kitay-gorod is one of the oldest parts of Moscow. It appeared nearby the old wooden Kremlin. Although the name translates as “Chinatown,” it probably derives from kita (wattle), referring to the wall that surrounded this early Kremlin suburb. Today, remains of an old city wall and colorful churches are scattered throughout this ancient neighborhood.
The stone walls were erected in the 16th century by an Italian architect known under the name Petrok Maly and originally featured 13 towers and six gates. They were as thick as they were high. The last of the towers were demolished in the 1930s, but small portions of the wall still stand. One of two remaining parts of the wall is located in Zaryadye and the other near the exit from the Okhotny Ryad station of Moscow Metro behind the Hotel Metropol.
Kitay-gorod starts at Red Square. Apart from Red Square, the quarter is bordered by the chain of Central Squares of Moscow, notably Theatre Square (in front of Bolshoi Theatre), Lubyanka Square (in front of the KGB headquarters), and Slavyanskaya Square.
Since time immemorial Kitay-gorod has been developing as a trading area. And for centuries it was known as the most prestigious business area of Moscow. Its three main streets — Varvarka, Ilyinka, and Nikolskaya — are lined with banks, shops, and storehouses. There are also lots of historical buildings that relate to the heritage of the federal and global importance now.
In our tour you will walk along Nikolskaya Street that is famous for being the site of Moscow's first university, the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, housed in extant Zaikonospassky monastery (1660s). Another monastery cathedral, the main church of Epiphany Bogoyavlensky Monastery (1690s), is the oldest male monastery in Moscow, stands in the middle of Kitay-gorod in the eponymous Bogoyavlensky Lane. The 18th century survives in the exterior walls of the otherwise rebuilt Gostiny Dvor (Guest Merchant's Court) by Giacomo Quarenghi.
A whole quarter of Kitay-gorod adjacent to the Moskva River and known as Zaryadye (now just Varvarka Street) was demolished in the 20th century, sparing only those structures that were classified as historic monuments. These include the Cathedral of the Sign (1679–84), the Church of All Saints (1680s), St. George's Church on Pskov Hill (1657), St. Maksim's Church (1698), St. Anna's Church at the Corner (1510s), St. Barbara's Church (1796–1804), the Old English Embassy (1550s), and the 16th century Romanov boyar residence. The two last are the museums. You can visit them to see the life of the first Romanovs in the 16-17th centuries.