--:-- • --:--Пример экскурсии
The enormous pink-coloured church with the gold dome is the most obvious building on Bogoyavlensky lane. It's the Cathedral of the Holy Epiphany Monastery. Following the renovations carried out recently, the church now looks as beautifully adorned as an Easter Egg.
The current cathedral of the Epiphany Monastery was built at the end of the C17th. The monastery itself, which no longer survives, was founded in the late C13th. Archaeological investigations on the site have recently unveiled the foundations of the preceding whitestone cathedral which stood here in the C14th. The Epiphany Monastery Cathedral is an outstanding exemple of Moscow baroque architecture. The tiered construction of the church, the bright colours, the elaborate facade with decorative carving – few other surviving buildings could ever be so easily recognisable.
With their inimitable ability for unwitting self-parody, the USSR authorities used the Epiphany Cathedral as a dormitory for the Alpine Institute, and then a metal-working workshop. During WW2 a German bomber was shot down over Moscow in 1941 and crashed directly next to the Cathedral. The blast devastated much of what the soviet authorities hadn't already wrecked. The Cathedral was restored in the closing years of the C20th and given back to worshippers. Today it serves as a parish church, and the interiors have been decorated with sculpture surviving from the C18th.
Kitay-gorod is one of the oldest parts of Moscow. It appeared nearby the old wooden Kremlin. Although the name translates as “Chinatown,” it probably derives from kita (wattle), referring to the wall that surrounded this early Kremlin suburb. Today, remains of an old city wall and colorful churches are scattered throughout this ancient neighborhood.
The stone walls were erected in the 16th century by an Italian architect known under the name Petrok Maly and originally featured 13 towers and six gates. They were as thick as they were high. The last of the towers were demolished in the 1930s, but small portions of the wall still stand. One of two remaining parts of the wall is located in Zaryadye and the other near the exit from the Okhotny Ryad station of Moscow Metro behind the Hotel Metropol.
Kitay-gorod starts at Red Square. Apart from Red Square, the quarter is bordered by the chain of Central Squares of Moscow, notably Theatre Square (in front of Bolshoi Theatre), Lubyanka Square (in front of the KGB headquarters), and Slavyanskaya Square.
Since time immemorial Kitay-gorod has been developing as a trading area. And for centuries it was known as the most prestigious business area of Moscow. Its three main streets — Varvarka, Ilyinka, and Nikolskaya — are lined with banks, shops, and storehouses. There are also lots of historical buildings that relate to the heritage of the federal and global importance now.
In our tour you will walk along Nikolskaya Street that is famous for being the site of Moscow's first university, the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, housed in extant Zaikonospassky monastery (1660s). Another monastery cathedral, the main church of Epiphany Bogoyavlensky Monastery (1690s), is the oldest male monastery in Moscow, stands in the middle of Kitay-gorod in the eponymous Bogoyavlensky Lane. The 18th century survives in the exterior walls of the otherwise rebuilt Gostiny Dvor (Guest Merchant's Court) by Giacomo Quarenghi.
A whole quarter of Kitay-gorod adjacent to the Moskva River and known as Zaryadye (now just Varvarka Street) was demolished in the 20th century, sparing only those structures that were classified as historic monuments. These include the Cathedral of the Sign (1679–84), the Church of All Saints (1680s), St. George's Church on Pskov Hill (1657), St. Maksim's Church (1698), St. Anna's Church at the Corner (1510s), St. Barbara's Church (1796–1804), the Old English Embassy (1550s), and the 16th century Romanov boyar residence. The two last are the museums. You can visit them to see the life of the first Romanovs in the 16-17th centuries.