The third hall is dedicated to Tolstoy's life in the Caucasus and his participation in the defense of Sevastopol. The portraits of his parents and illustrations to the novel "Childhood." are also displayed.
I can not tear himself away from my childhood, bright, tender, poetic, loving, mysterious childhood" - confessed the writer in his "Memoirs" (1902-1903).
The silhouette of Maria Nikolaevna Volkonskaya as a child is her only extant image (the second silhouette belongs to her cousin Maria Nikolaevna V.A.Volkonskaya).
Maria Volkonskaia received a broad education, unusual for a noble lady. She knew four foreign languages: French, German, English and Italian, wrote well in Russian, studied mathematics, physics and geography, read a lot. Her student's notebooks show that her father taught her economic affairs.
Maria Nikolaevna was happy during her short life as a married woman and was decorated with the love of all home to her. After the death of Maria Nikolaevna the family kept the highest spiritual atmosphere that prevailed in the house of Tolstoy in her lifetime. Little Lyova (Leo) was only a year and a half old at this time.
A portrait of father Nikolai Ilyich Tolstoy was painted by artist A.Molinari in 1815. Back in 1812 Nikolai Ilyich, 17 years of age, entered the third Ukrainian Cossack regiment as regular cornet, then for the difference in the battle was promoted to lieutenant and transferred to the Horse Regiment. Married Nikolay Ilyich settled in Yasnaya Polyana. Tolstoy wrote that his father, "like most people of the first time of Alexander and the campaigns of the years 13,14, 15 ... was not what is now called a liberal, but just for the self-esteem did not feel it possible to have anything to do with the service either in the end of the reign of Alexander I, or during Nicholas. "
The illustrations for the story "Childhood" belong to artists G.D.Zanegin and K.A.Klemetieva. Tolstoy began working on the story in the Caucasus.
"I was lonely and unhappy, living in the Caucasus,” Leo Tolstoy wrote to his great-aunt A.A. Tolstoy in the spring of 1859 - I began to think so, as only once in life people have the power to think ... It was painful, and a good time. Never before or since, I have reached such heights of thought ... And all that I found then will always remain my conviction ... I found a simple, old thing, I found that there is immortality, that is love and that we must live for another one, in order to be happy forever". Paintings by E.E. Lancer and M.V. Nesterov, manuscripts and illustrations for the stories and tales of Tolstoy Caucasian series, "The Wood-Felling", "The Raid," "The Cossacks", "Hadji Murad” tell us about this time.
In 1854, Tolstoy was appointed to the Danube army, in Bucharest. Boring The life of a officer assigned to headquarters was so boring there that he insisted on transfer to the Crimean army to besieged Sevastopol. There he commanded a battery of the 4th bastion and showed rare personal courage (he was awarded the Order of St. Anne and medals, these awards are also presented in the exhibition). In Crimea, Tolstoy was captured by new impressions and literary plans, and here he began writing the cycle of "Sevastopol Stories", published shortly with huge success. The literary critics. were struck by daring psychological analysis of the first literary works of Tolstoy. Some of the ideas that emerged during these years could be indicative to guess Tolstoy the preacher in a young artillery officer who dreamed of starting "a new religion," “the religion of Christ” cleared of faith and mystery, that is a practical religion."
Tolstoy aspired to tell the truth about the war. He shows soldiers in moments of respite in the battle, in hospital and on the surgery table. In the "house of suffering," as the writer defines the hospital, he opens to the readers “spectacles both terrible and shaking the soul”. Such was the substance of all wars since they bring people to torture and death.
The unique exhibits of the hall recreate the world in which the writer lived and worked.
It is the largest collection of items related to the heritage of Russia's greatest writer and philosopher. It is also a world famous It is also the world's largest research, cultural and educational center for studies and promotion of the creative legacy of Tolstoy.
The collection consists of about 500000 items related to the life and work of Leo Tolstoy. It has been the basis for research work of specialists on Tolstoy from Russia and other countries for many decades. The major part of it is a unique collection of manuscripts of the writer and persons close to him; it also includes the collections of art, sculpture, graphics, photos and films (several thousand negatives depicting the writer); a library of rare books and publications with almost all editions of Tolstoy's works undertaken during his life.
The Мuseum was established after death of the writer by the family, friends and loved ones of the writer, many of them being prominent figures of the Russian culture. Among them are his wife Sofia and Tolstoy's children, Russian writers: V. Briusov, I. Bunin, M. Gorki, V. Veresaev; artists: I. Repin, L. Pasternak, V. Меshkov, sculptor S. Меrkurov, representatives of the theatrical community: К. Stanislavski, V. Nemirovich-Danchenko, V. Каchаlov, А. Yablochkina, followers of Tolstoy: V. Chertkov, P. Buriukov, I. Gorbunov-Posadov, N. Gusev, V. Bulgakov. The museum of L.N. Tolstoy, then settled down at 18 Povarskaia street, received first visitors on December 28, 1911. 1920 was the year of significant changes: it changed its status from public to a state one to be denominated further on as the State Literary Museum. The museum was offered new premises in the house of the Lopukhin family at 11 Prechistenka street.
The museum occupies the ancient house which is a unique example of building in Moscow after the Patriotic War of 1812. The house was designed by architect А.G. Grigoriev (1782–1868), who was rebuilding Moscow after the great fire of 1812, alongwith Osip Bove, the Gilardi family, the Shestakov brothers and other famous architects. The Lopukhin house is distinguished by monumentality and refined simplicity of the external decoration. In the house are five state rooms: reception, hall-dining room, large living room and front bedroom. The architectural diversity of the ceremonial room complements the colorful ceiling paintings, made by Italian craftsmen.
In the late 18th - early 19th century the manor belonged to the Guards Lieutenant Basil Avramovic Lopukhin, then to his son Abraham Vasilyevich. Later the house was owned by Katherine Stanitsky, Councilor of the Court. It is not known exactly whether Tolstoy visited the house, though he was a distant relative of the Lopukhin: his cousin's aunt Maria Ivanovna Lopukhin, was the elder sister of Count Tolstoy, Fyodor Ivanovich, nicknamed "American". The Lopukhin house survived until today without significant changes and is now carefully preserved by the museum.