Hall 7

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Язык экскурсии: Русский
Автор: LLC Your Audioguide

The hall presents the photos of children of the writer. L.N. and S.А. Тоlstoy were the parents of eight grown children; they had endured five children's deaths. Despite these tragedies the atmosphere in the Tolstoy family was always pleasant, cheerful and relaxed. Yasnaya Polina and the Khamovniki estate in Moscow were frequently visited by guests: relatives, friends, many famous people, ordinary peasants. The house was filled with of music, loud reading, intimate conversations, heated debate. The Tolstoy children staged amateur performances, played music, and filled the home space with cheerful bustle.
The first son Sergey was born in 1863. He became a great composer, musician, professor of Moscow Conservatory. He is the author of memoirs “Essays on the former”.
Daughter Tatiana (1864 – 1950), artist (she studied at the School of Art, Sculpture and Architecture, took lessons of I. Repin and N.N. Ghe); memoirist, author of the books «Recollections», «The Diary». L like other daughters she was close to her father. L.N. Тоlstoy was very fond of his daughters. They fully shared his views.
Ilia, the second son of the writer (1866–1933). The author of memoirs about the family and life in Yasnaya Poliana and two stories: “A corpse” and “One scoundrel less”. In January of 1882 he participated with his father in the census. In 1892 and then again in 1898 they worked together helping the starving people in Begichevka. Ilia photographed his father in 1892 in Moscow at the booths at the Devichie field. Another picture was taken in the spring of 1892 in Moscow near the house in Khamovniki.
Lev (1869–1945 гг.) , bright, talented person. Journalist, writer, sculptor, artist.
Маria, the middle daughter. In her teens she read all the religious and philosophical works of her father, fully believed him and became his most devoted disciple. The décor of her room and her clothes were always simple and strict. She became a vegetarian, gave up the secular pleasures, did not avoid doing any simplest “black” works. Together with her father she assisted peasants, taught their children reading and writing, cured peasants after graduating medical assistant courses. In 1900 being married and living in Maloe Pirogovo she made her first photographs. She made photos of her father reading, taking a rest and communicating with other people.
Peter (1872-1873), Nikolai (1874-1875), Varvara - 1875, Аlexey (1881-1886) and Ivan (1888-1895), all died in infancy.
Аndrey was an officer on special assignments for governor in Tula. During the Russian-Japanese war took part in battles in the Far East.
Мichael in 1898 left school and entered the military service.
Аlexandra the youngest daughter of the writer. She has become a true friend and assistant for L.N. Tolstoy. From 1901 Sasha mastered typing and shorthand and became a copywriter of manuscripts of her father. After her father's death her whole subsequent was devoted to execution of his will to perpetuate his memory. In the First World War she became a nurse, was awarded two medals of St. George. In 1921 Аlexandra was appointed director of the museum in Yasnaya Poliana. Thanks to her efforts the estate was duly kept and the collection of the museum in Moscow was filled up. Аlexandra has created the largest (among the children) collection of photos of Tolstoy. She began taking pictures by Kodak in 1901 in the Crimea."

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Информация по экскурсии "The State Museum of Leo Tolstoy in Moscow"

It is the largest collection of items related to the heritage of Russia's greatest writer and philosopher. It is also a world famous It is also the world's largest research, cultural and educational center for studies and promotion of the creative legacy of Tolstoy.

The collection consists of about 500000 items related to the life and work of Leo Tolstoy. It has been the basis for research work of specialists on Tolstoy from Russia and other countries for many decades. The major part of it is a unique collection of manuscripts of the writer and persons close to him; it also includes the collections of art, sculpture, graphics, photos and films (several thousand negatives depicting the writer); a library of rare books and publications with almost all editions of Tolstoy's works undertaken during his life.

The Мuseum was established after death of the writer by the family, friends and loved ones of the writer, many of them being prominent figures of the Russian culture. Among them are his wife Sofia and Tolstoy's children, Russian writers: V. Briusov, I. Bunin, M. Gorki, V. Veresaev; artists: I. Repin, L. Pasternak, V. Меshkov, sculptor S. Меrkurov, representatives of the theatrical community: К. Stanislavski, V. Nemirovich-Danchenko, V. Каchаlov, А. Yablochkina, followers of Tolstoy: V. Chertkov, P. Buriukov, I. Gorbunov-Posadov, N. Gusev, V. Bulgakov. The museum of L.N. Tolstoy, then settled down at 18 Povarskaia street, received first visitors on December 28, 1911. 1920 was the year of significant changes: it changed its status from public to a state one to be denominated further on as the State Literary Museum. The museum was offered new premises in the house of the Lopukhin family at 11 Prechistenka street.

The museum occupies the ancient house which is a unique example of building in Moscow after the Patriotic War of 1812. The house was designed by architect А.G. Grigoriev (1782–1868), who was rebuilding Moscow after the great fire of 1812, alongwith Osip Bove, the Gilardi family, the Shestakov brothers and other famous architects. The Lopukhin house is distinguished by monumentality and refined simplicity of the external decoration. In the house are five state rooms: reception, hall-dining room, large living room and front bedroom. The architectural diversity of the ceremonial room complements the colorful ceiling paintings, made by Italian craftsmen.

In the late 18th - early 19th century the manor belonged to the Guards Lieutenant Basil Avramovic Lopukhin, then to his son Abraham Vasilyevich. Later the house was owned by Katherine Stanitsky, Councilor of the Court. It is not known exactly whether Tolstoy visited the house, though he was a distant relative of the Lopukhin: his cousin's aunt Maria Ivanovna Lopukhin, was the elder sister of Count Tolstoy, Fyodor Ivanovich, nicknamed "American". The Lopukhin house survived until today without significant changes and is now carefully preserved by the museum.


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