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Here, at the foot of the Kremlin Wall, is home to a gloomy architectural sculpture – the Tomb Of The Unknown Soldier. The sculpture displays a military helmet alongside the heavy folds of a flag - side-by-side with a bronze five-pointed star is the Eternal Flame. This monument to military valour marks the grave of the Unknown Soldier – a monument to all those who fell in WW2.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is always marked with flowers and wreaths. The inscription on the granite slab of the tomb reads ‘Your name may be unknown, but your deeds are immortal’. To the left on the wall there is a memorial tablet reading ‘1941 – To Those Who Fell For The Motherland – 1945’. The Eternal Flame lit here on May 9th 1967 was lit from a torch brought from the Eternal Flame on the Fields of Mars in Leningrad (today's St.Petersburg). Thirty years later, by Presidential Decree, the Honour Guard – Guard-Post No.1 - which formerly stood on duty at Lenin's Mausoleum was moved to guard the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The Guard is kept by soldiers of the Presidential Regiment, and changed every hour. National Holidays are always marked by official visits to the Tomb, and VIP foreign guests traditionally lay wreaths here.
The Memorial Grave of the Unknown Soldier was erected in honour of all those in the Armed Forces who fell in WW2. It was opened to mark the 25th Anniversary of the defeat of Nazi troops attacking Moscow. In 1966 the remains of unknown soldiers who had fallen in the Defence Of Moscow in 1941 were moved from a mass grave near the 41-kilometre road-mark on the Leningrad Highway – a point where some of the fiercest fighting of WW2 was seen. Their bodies were reburied in the Mausoleum of Heroes in the Kremlin Wall.
Moscow Kremlin is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of Kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation. It is also open-air museum. Tourists can just walk outdoors there or can visit cathedrals, Big Kremlin Palace and the Armory Chamber. The Kremlin Museums were established in 1961 and the complex was among the first Soviet patrimonies inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1990.
The site has been continuously inhabited since the 2nd century BC, and originates from a Vyatich fortified structure on Borovitsky Hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the 'grad of Moscow'. The grad was greatly extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339. Later in 1366–1368Dmitri Donskoy replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone on the basic foundations of the current walls. This fortification withstood a siege by Khan Tokhtamysh.
Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and the new palace for the prince. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08. The Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new czar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with the time's fashion. During the Soviet period the Chudov Monastery and Ascension Convent, with their 16th-century cathedrals, were dismantled to make room for the military school and Palace of Congresses. The Little Nicholas Palace and the old Saviour Cathedral were pulled down as well. Now the plans of the government are to restore those lost masterpieces. And probably soon the Kremlin will return all its former buildings.