--:-- • --:--Пример экскурсии
The Tainitsky Garden follows the line of the South side of the Kremlin Walls, overlooking the bank of the River. The upper part of the Garden, which borders Ivan Square, is also called Great Kremlin Square.
The Tainitsky Garden in the Moscow Kremlin got its name from the similarly-titled Kremlin tower, which is located in the centre of the Kremlin Walls which overlook the river. “Tainitsky” contains the Russian word “secret”, and if we delve back into history we find that the tower – not the garden! - got its name due to secret casements below it leading to an emergency exit in case of siege.
In the C13th and C14th there were still private houses built inside the Kremlin area, and this street, with houses and churches along it, leading to the Konstantino-Yeleninskaya Bastion, was called Velikaya, or Great street. It must have been along this very street that Prince Dmitry of the Don and his army rode out to meet the Mongolian Army in battle.
In the C14th century there was a Church of the Annunciation in the Tainitsky Garden, which had a Provisions Yard where emergency rations were stored. Here once stood the Church of Saint Constantine & Saint Yelena, first mentioned in records of the C14th. Stalin tore the church down in the 1930s. The place where the church formerly stood was used for children's New Year parties until the 1960s.
The fountain here in the Tainitsky Gardens is new, erected in 2008. In fact it was the first fountain in the Kremlin. Historical records suggest there were previously as many as four fountains in the Kremlin Gardens at different times – but no trace of the “living water”, as fountains were formerly called in Russia, has survived.
Recent archaelogical digs in the Tainitsky Gardens have unveiled a great many finds so far. They uncovered remains of ancient slavonic log-cabins once built here, and numerous items of domestic life. The most remarkable discoveries, however, have been birch-bark parchment documents dating from the C14th. Russian scribes used sheaves of birch-bark for writing before paper was widely in use in Russia.
Due to the fact that the Lower Garden is always slightly warm, but oxygen didn't get into the soil, the conditions were perfect for preserving objects such as leather items and birch-bark documents. In fact birch-bark documents of this particular era are the kind which researchers most lack. Experts are able to decipher the content of the document, and assign a date and provenance to it.
Now let's look in more detail at one of these mysterious birch-bark documents unearthed in the Tainitsky Garden. It's a thin leaf of the inner bark of a birch tree, with handwriting on both sides in the Old Church Slavonic language – a medieval Slavic language which was a precursor of modern Russian. The document is an inventory of property owned by a certain Mr.Turabiev. The document also gives a list of people who were our Mr.Turabiev's creditors. This surname had only been known from the C16th onwards – the birch-bark sheaf shows it was already in use in the C14th. It's planned to continue the archaeological dig in the Tainitsky Garden. It's planned to display the 5000 items so far discovered in the Kremlin Museum Collections, once archivists have examined and catalogued them.
Moscow Kremlin is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of Kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation. It is also open-air museum. Tourists can just walk outdoors there or can visit cathedrals, Big Kremlin Palace and the Armory Chamber. The Kremlin Museums were established in 1961 and the complex was among the first Soviet patrimonies inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1990.
The site has been continuously inhabited since the 2nd century BC, and originates from a Vyatich fortified structure on Borovitsky Hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the 'grad of Moscow'. The grad was greatly extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339. Later in 1366–1368Dmitri Donskoy replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone on the basic foundations of the current walls. This fortification withstood a siege by Khan Tokhtamysh.
Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and the new palace for the prince. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08. The Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new czar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with the time's fashion. During the Soviet period the Chudov Monastery and Ascension Convent, with their 16th-century cathedrals, were dismantled to make room for the military school and Palace of Congresses. The Little Nicholas Palace and the old Saviour Cathedral were pulled down as well. Now the plans of the government are to restore those lost masterpieces. And probably soon the Kremlin will return all its former buildings.