--:-- • --:--Пример экскурсии
The tower with the stepped pyramid appearance and gates is the Borovitskaya Tower. It stands atop the south-west slope of the Borovitskaya Hill, which is the main location of the Kremlin. To the left of the tower, behind the trees, you can see the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in the distance. Turning to the right is Borovitskaya Street, and on it we see a three-storey light-coloured building – the State Armoury Collection. It's formed in a similar style to the Grand Kremlin Palace. In the basement of this building there is the public exhibition of the State Diamond Fund Of Russia.
Don't be confused by the military name of the State Armoury Collections – they are not about armour at all, and instead contain the Treasure Of The Tsars, including the magnificent collection of English Silver, the Royal Ceremonial Carriages, and the Fabergé Eggs. Entry is strictly by time-allocated ticket (your Kremlin ticket is not valid for this additional collection), and you would do well to purchase a ticket in the morning if you intend visiting in the afternoon – or ideally buy the day before (remembering that the Kremlin is closed on Thursdays). Tickets sell-out in advance, so don't miss your chance.
The State Armoury Collections are housed in a charming palace building richly decorated in the neo-Russian style. It was built especially for the collection in the mid-C19th by the architect Kontantin Ton – the same Ton, indeed, who build the Grand Kremlin Palace.
Even back in the C15th Ivan III ordered a stone treasure-house to be built near the Cathedral of the Annunciation called the Treasury Court, to which all the valuables of the Grand Treasury were transferred. They'd previously been hoarded away in church basements for safe keeping. Later there appeared the Royal Jewellery Workshops, the Tsars and Tsarina's Chambers and the Silver Collection. Once the Armoury Collection was built, all royal treasures were transferred to it.
The State Armoury Collections are one of the world's most famous treasure-houses. The Armoury's nine halls display over four thousand exhibits, some of which date back to the C4th. Firearms and tournament armour, gold and silver utensils, jewellery, court and ecclesiastical costume, and many other things are on display. Of especial interest are the Cap Of Monomakh (Russia's oldest royal crown); the gold crown, orb and sceptre of Mikhail Romanov; and the diamond headgear of Peter I. There are gold and silver jugs, goblets and gold altar-crosses adorned with precious stones. But for many western visitors the three greatest don't-miss highlights are the English Silver collection, considered the finest in the world; the Royal Ceremonial Carriages; and most of all the Fabergé Eggs.
Moscow Kremlin is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of Kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation. It is also open-air museum. Tourists can just walk outdoors there or can visit cathedrals, Big Kremlin Palace and the Armory Chamber. The Kremlin Museums were established in 1961 and the complex was among the first Soviet patrimonies inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1990.
The site has been continuously inhabited since the 2nd century BC, and originates from a Vyatich fortified structure on Borovitsky Hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the 'grad of Moscow'. The grad was greatly extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339. Later in 1366–1368Dmitri Donskoy replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone on the basic foundations of the current walls. This fortification withstood a siege by Khan Tokhtamysh.
Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and the new palace for the prince. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08. The Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new czar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with the time's fashion. During the Soviet period the Chudov Monastery and Ascension Convent, with their 16th-century cathedrals, were dismantled to make room for the military school and Palace of Congresses. The Little Nicholas Palace and the old Saviour Cathedral were pulled down as well. Now the plans of the government are to restore those lost masterpieces. And probably soon the Kremlin will return all its former buildings.