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Borovitskaya Street is the longest in the Kremlin, and runs from Ivan Square to the gates of the Borovitskaya Tower. Both the Annunciation and Archangel Mikhail Cathedrals look onto it. The Grand Kremlin Palace is located along the street, and here we also find one of Russia's very oldest museums – The Kremlin Armoury Collection.
From the battlements of Borovitskaya Street there are magnificent hilltop views across the Moskva River below – you can watch the pleasure boats go by. Behind the trees in the distance you can see the dome of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
Borovitskaya Street is one of Moscow's oldest neighbourhoods – so old that we have no written records of its early history. Until the C19th the street was little more than 100 yards long, and ran from the Borovitskaya Gate of the Kremlin to the Church Of John the Baptist In The Forest. As far as we know from C15th records, this church had been built in the C14th right on the spot where the trees were felled for building it. A stone church soon replaced the wooden one, but it was to last only 30 years. At the turn of the C16th Aleviz Fryazin, also known as Aloisio da Carezano, replaced the church with a larger one which lasted until the mid-C19th. Nearby this church at one time stood the Royal chambers of Grand-Prince Ivan Kalità, or Ivan The Moneybags, and Mitropolit Peter.
Moscow Kremlin is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of Kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation. It is also open-air museum. Tourists can just walk outdoors there or can visit cathedrals, Big Kremlin Palace and the Armory Chamber. The Kremlin Museums were established in 1961 and the complex was among the first Soviet patrimonies inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1990.
The site has been continuously inhabited since the 2nd century BC, and originates from a Vyatich fortified structure on Borovitsky Hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the 'grad of Moscow'. The grad was greatly extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339. Later in 1366–1368Dmitri Donskoy replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone on the basic foundations of the current walls. This fortification withstood a siege by Khan Tokhtamysh.
Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and the new palace for the prince. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08. The Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new czar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with the time's fashion. During the Soviet period the Chudov Monastery and Ascension Convent, with their 16th-century cathedrals, were dismantled to make room for the military school and Palace of Congresses. The Little Nicholas Palace and the old Saviour Cathedral were pulled down as well. Now the plans of the government are to restore those lost masterpieces. And probably soon the Kremlin will return all its former buildings.