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The Front Gate or the Palace Gate has been preserved since the reign of Tsar Aleksey I Romanov. This four-tier gate has a green tented roof decorated with an eagle. In the C17th, the front entrance to Kolomenskoye was from are Moskva River. However, the number of individuals entitled to approach the imperial palace was limited. Most visitors entered the Monarchic Court on foot and unarmed. The Front Gate’s lower tier has two arches. The higher arch was used for solemn occasions, while the lower one was meant for everyday use.
During the reign of Tsar Aleksey, there were four mechanical lions meeting visitors coming from the river. In addition, there were four more lions in the arch. The lions were made of wood and ‘dressed in what looked like lion fur’. The statues could raise their heads, roll their eyes, and make terrible roaring sounds. The mechanism activating the ingenious gimmick was installed in the Organ Chamber located on the second tier of the gate above the arches. Writer and theologist of the C17th Symeon of Polotsk described the lions as follows: ‘In a lifelike manner, the lions roared, move their eyes, open their mouths, and look like they are about to walk’. These big toys were made for the Russian tsar by Byelorussian Pyotr Vysotsky, a master craftsman at the Armoury Chamber.
In the openings of the Front Gate tower, there hung clock chime bells, while the movement was installed below on the third tier, in the Clock Chamber. The octagonal tented roof was crowned with a two-headed eagle ‘coated with white iron’. When foreign ambassadors arrived at the imperial estate, they stepped out of their carriages and closed sleighs near the Front Gate and walked.
Kolomenskoye is a nice park and a former royal estate situated several kilometers to the southeast of the city center of Moscow, on the ancient road leading to the ancient picturesque town of Kolomna (hence the name).
The area overlooks the steep banks of the Moskva River. This fact will allow you to do a lot of great panoramic photos. This is also a place where seasonal folk festivals take place: honey and handicrafts trade-fairs, religious festivities and processions. If you fond of painting, this is the right place for drawing nature, city landscapes and churches.
The area is rich with cafes and restaurants offering traditional Russian cuisine in wooden houses. Try Russian pan-cakes with different filling, small and big pies, and honey cakes.
Kolomenskoye village was first mentioned in the testament of Ivan Kalita in 1339. As time went by, the village was developed as a favourite country estate of grand princes of Muscovy. The earliest existing structure is the exceptional Ascension church (1532), built in white stone to commemorate the long-awaited birth of an heir to the throne, the future Ivan the Terrible. Being the first stone church of tent-like variety, the uncanonical "White Column" (as it is sometimes referred to) marked a stunning break from the Byzantine tradition.
Recognizing its outstanding value for humanity, UNESCO decided to inscribe the church on the World Heritage List. The estate was one of the favourite places for Ivan the Terrible. He used to celebrate here his name-day in August. In XVI-XVII centuries there develops a unique architectural ensemble, subordinated to the idea of ceremonial royal residence, which is of great artistic and historical value. The heyday of Kolomenskoye is associated with the reign of Alexey Mikhailovich - Kolomenskoye was his favorite residence also. In 1667-1668 a magnificent wooden palace (the Eighth Wonder of the World) which had 250 rooms, was erected. The complex of the royal buildings was surrounded by the wall with three gates: Front, Back and Garden.
The future Empress Elizabeth Petrovna was born in the palace in 1709, and Tsar Peter the Great spent part of his youth here. Upon the departure of the court for St. Petersburg, the palace fell into disrepair, so that Catherine II refused to make it her Moscow residence. On her orders the wooden palace was demolished in 1768, and replaced with a much more modest stone-and-brick structure.
Fortunately, detailed plans of the 17th century palace survived and Moscow Government has completed a full-scale reconstruction in 2010.