--:-- • --:--Пример экскурсии
It was customary to start a horticultural farm for every imperial and grand-prince residence. There were some extensive gardens in Kolomenskoye too. They were operated by special state gardeners selected from peasants owing taxes in labour and in kind. The earliest record about them was found in a neighbouring village, Dyakovo. A white-stone gravestone was discovered at a cemetery that is no longer there. The epitaph read as follows: ‘Servant of God state gardener Filipp Kirilov, deceased on the 2nd of January, 7157, i.e. 1649’.
State gardeners lived in a special settlement, Garden Village. It was located south-west of Kolomenskoye behind Ascension Garden. State gardeners’ status approximated that of now peasants, now official artisans, depending on whether they owned arable land or earned a salary. By the way, their salary was quite high handsome. For instance, two gardeners had dependent workers who did not pay rent, while one gardener had a ‘purchased Polish worker’. According to cadastres, in the mid-1670s, there were 13 gardener households in Kolomenskoye, including 42 men. The number of households reached 48 by the first half of the C18th.
Gardening skills were highly appreciated. Gardeners not only lived in a separate village, but also they had an elder who collected duties and supervised their work. In 1717, in addition to an elder, a supervisor was assigned to the Kolomenskoye gardens. He was supposed to visit different gardens and keep tabs on harvests and gardeners’ performance. State gardeners had a lot of responsibilities. They tilled the ground and planted, grew, guarded, and harvested vegetables, and delivered them to markets or storage facilities. in addition, they had to replace frozen and withered trees at their own expense.
Kolomenskoye is a nice park and a former royal estate situated several kilometers to the southeast of the city center of Moscow, on the ancient road leading to the ancient picturesque town of Kolomna (hence the name).
The area overlooks the steep banks of the Moskva River. This fact will allow you to do a lot of great panoramic photos. This is also a place where seasonal folk festivals take place: honey and handicrafts trade-fairs, religious festivities and processions. If you fond of painting, this is the right place for drawing nature, city landscapes and churches.
The area is rich with cafes and restaurants offering traditional Russian cuisine in wooden houses. Try Russian pan-cakes with different filling, small and big pies, and honey cakes.
Kolomenskoye village was first mentioned in the testament of Ivan Kalita in 1339. As time went by, the village was developed as a favourite country estate of grand princes of Muscovy. The earliest existing structure is the exceptional Ascension church (1532), built in white stone to commemorate the long-awaited birth of an heir to the throne, the future Ivan the Terrible. Being the first stone church of tent-like variety, the uncanonical "White Column" (as it is sometimes referred to) marked a stunning break from the Byzantine tradition.
Recognizing its outstanding value for humanity, UNESCO decided to inscribe the church on the World Heritage List. The estate was one of the favourite places for Ivan the Terrible. He used to celebrate here his name-day in August. In XVI-XVII centuries there develops a unique architectural ensemble, subordinated to the idea of ceremonial royal residence, which is of great artistic and historical value. The heyday of Kolomenskoye is associated with the reign of Alexey Mikhailovich - Kolomenskoye was his favorite residence also. In 1667-1668 a magnificent wooden palace (the Eighth Wonder of the World) which had 250 rooms, was erected. The complex of the royal buildings was surrounded by the wall with three gates: Front, Back and Garden.
The future Empress Elizabeth Petrovna was born in the palace in 1709, and Tsar Peter the Great spent part of his youth here. Upon the departure of the court for St. Petersburg, the palace fell into disrepair, so that Catherine II refused to make it her Moscow residence. On her orders the wooden palace was demolished in 1768, and replaced with a much more modest stone-and-brick structure.
Fortunately, detailed plans of the 17th century palace survived and Moscow Government has completed a full-scale reconstruction in 2010.