--:-- • --:--Пример экскурсии
The imposing building with the eight-columned portico topped with bronze galloping horses is the Bolshoi Theatre – the main building on Theatre square, and an iconic symbol of Moscow.
The Bolshoi is one of Russia's most famous theatres, and its history can be traced back to 1780. This was when the famous British impresario Maddox built a new theatre on Petrovka street on the right bank of the Neglinnaya river, on the site of a previous burnt-out theatre. Maddox's theatre was called The Petrovsky Theatre. It, too, was burned down several times – but each was rebuilt in a still more glorious fashion. The present building dates to the mid-C19th.
After the 1812 fires of the Napoleonic wars, the theatre was rebuilt by architect Osip Bové. He ducted the adjacent Neglinnaya river underground as part of his plan, and built the new theatre partially over the reclaimed land – naming it the Bolshoi Petrovsky Theatre. The monumental scale and harmonious proportions of the new building made it Europe's second opera-house after La Scala in Milan. But a new conflagration left the building burnt-out, leaving only the walls and the colonnade. Once again Bové was called in to supervise the rebuilding – during which Apollo's Chariot, which crowns the colonnade, was changed from plaster to bronze.
Unrepaired since 1825, the Bolshoi was closed in 2005 to permit a complete rebuild. Six long years later, on October 28th 2011 it was finally reopened after building works costing three times more than budgeted. Available floorspace was nearly doubled in the rebuilding, now totalling some 80,000 sq metres. The stage area is now bigger than a six-storey apartment block, and all its operations are computerised. The White Foyer was restored, complete with its old paintings. 156 craftsmen from all over Russia restored the gold-leaf decoration, with a thickness of 5 microns and a total area of 980 sq metres of gold – needing 4.5 kg of gold altogether.
Moscow is the capital of the ancient and modern Russian state. It has been playing crucial role for centuries. Here you can face all episodes of rich and gorgeous Russian history.
The city is full of historical buildings, monuments, cathedrals, museums and parks. It started many centuries ago from the Kremlin – medieval city-fortress overlooking the Moskva River. Now it is not only the government seat but open air museum. Behind the tall red brick walls palaces, cathedrals and museums are hidden. You can get there through one of the gates and walk along the streets that saw Ivan the Terrible, Boris Godunov, Peter the Great and all other Romanovs, and the Soviet leaders.
You can visit all the cathedrals on Sobornaya (Cathedral) Square, climb Ivan the Great Bell Tower, take photos of the Tzar Bell and Tzar Cannon, see state regalia, ceremonial vestments and gold and silver relics in the world-known treasury-house – the Armoury Chamber. To say more, the Kremlin and its vicinities are on the UNESCO World Heritage list.
We would like to advise you not to concentrate on the Kremlin only. Now you can get out of the Kremlin through the Spasskiye Gate and find yourself on Red Square – the main square of the country where Victory Day parades take place. In winter there is a skating rink with some kind of souvenir bazar. Red Square is famous for being the part of so called Kitai-Gorod – the second ring of fortified walls. Here you will see the beautiful fairy-tale St. Basil’s Cathedral. It is open for tourists and it’s worth visiting. Other places that pay tourists’ attention are GUM (the main center for shopaholics), Lenin’s Mausoleum, the State History Museum and the small Cathedral of the Kazan Icon of Our Lady. If you go along Nikolskaya Street, you will get to Lubyanka Square with the imposing buildings of former KGB and the biggest in Russia Children's World Department Store.
If you decide to go through the Resurrection Gate you will find yourself on Manezhnaya (Manege) Square at the entrance to the Alexander Garden. It’s a large pedestrian open space and a nice place to walk and relax near the fountains. Underground Trade Centre ”Okhotny Ryad” or “the Hunter’s Row” is a paradise for shopping. You can continue your walk towards Arbat or Tverskaya Street. There are also fine buildings to visit and to take pictures of: The Shilov Art Gallery, hotels “Moskva”, “Nationale”, Pashkov's House, The Former House of the Moscow State Duma etc.
If you decide to turn round Georgy Zhukov’s horse monument you’ll occur on Revolution Square where you can visit the Museum of Patriotic War of 1812. From there it’s very easy to get to Teatralnaya or “Theatre” Square limited by the Metropol Hotel, The Bolshoi and the Maly Theatres. In the center you will find a beautiful fountain by Vitali.
All these sites and even more you will be able to visit and explore with knowledgeable audio excursion with offline map from Your Audio Guide “Attractions around the Kremlin”. You will find Moscow very pleasant for spending holidays.